Various properties of finite iterations of the Heighway/Harter dragon curve and twindragon curve, including boundary, area, convex hull, minimum rectangle, XY convex hull, centroid, inertia, complex base i±1, area tree, and some fractionals.
Read draft 15,
"Draft" here means believed correct as far as it goes but with some more to be added. The quality varies in places, and it's becoming quite long, but there's plenty of pictures to look at. The LaTeX source uses PGF for pictures.
Document copyright 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Kevin Ryde. Permission is granted for anyone to make a copy for the purpose of reading it. The PDF rendition contains fonts which are Copyright American Mathematical Society and licensed under the open font license.
.tar.gz includes various generator and development
programs which are all
GPLv3 up. They're
mostly Perl and a bit rough. Modules used variously include
(some debs in my repo). The document has
self-tests with Pari/GP and
functions are extracted to a
devel/dragon-defines.gp which is
highly specific to the document but might be of interest for experimenting.
(Needs GP 2.9 up for various things.) Some C code using the
Nauty library makes dragon curve
graphs and trees for experimenting.
See Math::PlanePath::DragonCurve for some Perl code implementing curve coordinate calculations. The corresponding DragonCurve section of the PlanePath image gallery has some pictures.
for Perl code creating the area tree in
Graph.pm (or similar).
twindragon-area-tree-10.pdf(about 18.9k) — twindragon level 10 area tree
twindragon-area-tree-10-line.png(about 1.6k) — twindragon level 10 area tree flattened to a line
Here are some dragon curve drawing programs by me and variously posted on Rosetta Code. The algorithms vary with the strengths of each language. (Between 2 and 6 kbytes each, all free software GPLv3 up.)
dragon.el— Emacs Lisp
dragon.gnuplot— Gnuplot graph of coordinate function
dragon.gp— Pari/GP plot (its low-level drawing)
dragon-unfold.gp— Pari/GP plot of unfolded points
dragon.gri— Gri drawing, recursive
dragon-iterative.gri— Gri drawing, iterative
dragon.logo— UCB Logo turtle turns
dragon.m4— M4 by predicate making ascii art
dragon-pgf-direction.tex— LaTeX with PGF and
dragon-pgf-latex.tex— LaTeX with PGF
dragon-pgf-plain.tex— plain TeX with PGF
dragon.scad— OpenSCAD 3-D
dragon-matrix.scad— OpenSCAD variation using transformation matrices
This page Copyright 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 Kevin Ryde.
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